Scholastic philosophy can be defined as the examination of faith and reason with the expectation that both will reinforce one another.
In the medieval era scholastic philosophy was used in a very vast and profound manner. It was taught in the universities and there were several philosophers and theologians that taught it. Between them, there was Peter Abelard. Both a theologian and a philosopher, he composed Sic et Non which was a philosophical work with a list of quotations from Christian authorities on philosophical and theological questions. He would write the questions and then leave them unanswered with a motivation of it being an exercise for his students where they could answer them. However, the answers that the Christian authorities had given to those questions contradicted each other, therefore people made an emphasis on Peter of contradiction rather than agreement, for he didn’t make an attempt on answering the questions and working towards a resolution. With far more conflicts between Peter and other people he inevitably ended up spending the rest of his life in a monastery as a monk.
Personally, I don’t agree with scholastic philosophy and the following essays I’ve written explain why. No Intermediate Phase, Ancient Greece and Pre-Socratic Philosophy, Christianity and its Evolution, Understanding His Wisdom, Breaking the Structures of Reason.
Born in an influential family, Thomas Aquinas an Italian Dominican friar and Catholic priest was a very influential philosopher and theologian who wrote several philosophical and theological works. He first began at the age of fourteen in the University of Naples, but was imprisoned by his family for the disapproval of Aquinas’ conversion to the Dominicans. After a year in prison, he had memorized the Bible and the Sentences of Peter Lombard. He was then sent to study under Albert the Great in the University of Cologne, where he ended up teaching later. Paris, Bologne, Rome, and Naples were universities he also taught in. Later, he assisted three popes as an official theologian to the curia.
Some of his works included the Summa Theologica, the Summa Contra Gentiles, and the Commentaries on the works of Aristotle. Not only did he write, but he also composed hymns including the Tantum Ergo. Thomas was such an influential person that he still influences some people just like Aristotle, Plato, and Socrates still do.