The Ninth-and Tenth-Century Invasions

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A group of people called the Vikings or also referred to as the Norsemen, raided on coastal towns, and grew in attacks further into the land. Since they had no interest in settling in any of the lands they attacked, they cared nothing about them, and how much they destroyed. This led to devastation, such as villages and farms burned, churches and monasteries destroyed and looted, and many people carried into slavery. The Vikings’ only interest was the gold, the silver, and the jewels.

However, the Vikings weren’t the only ones invading Europe, but also a group called the Magyars. Though we are not sure of their origin, we still say they are from Asia. The Magyars attacked Germany, northern Italy, and parts of France. Like the Vikings, they also looted and pillaged the monasteries. Nevertheless, by the year 1000 they had been Christianized, and therefore formed a Christian kingdom in Hungary.

Adding to the Vikings and the Magyars, the Muslims also invaded Europe. Executing in plunder, kidnaps, and looting. Notwithstanding, they were wounded down by the late tenth century.

These invasions were known to be as the Ninth-and Tenth-Century Invasions. This eventually, caused the West to be much weakened, making the Kings too weak to provide much protection. As a result, this led to feudalism and manorialism.

Manorialism was characterized by the exchange of labor for protection between the lord and the fief (manor). This meant that the lord, who was a very wealthy person, would hire his own knights to fight off the invaders and provide protection for the fiefs, while the fiefs worked on his land.

On the other hand, feudalism sets reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility, which involved the lords, the vassals, and the fiefs. The lord would keep a part of his realm as his own demesne, and the rest he would entrust to his faithful companions in the form of fiefs. The feudal lord dispensed justice on his estate, collected taxes, maintained infrastructure, and protected widows, orphans, and the poor.

Within time, the vassals began to give advice to the lord, which resulted to be the origin of the parliaments. The vassals also began to exercise political and legal authority over their fiefs (subinfeudation). There was also a ceremony and a ritual established at the church for the knights.

For our conclusion, the Ninth-and Tenth-Century Invasions caused enough damage for feudalism and manorialism to be formed.

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Categories: Western Civilization 1 | Tags: , , , , | Leave a comment

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