Gymnosperms are a group of seed-producing plants, in which the term “gymnosperm” comes from the Greek word gymnospermos which means “naked seeds”. In contrast to seeds and ovules of flowering plants (angiosperms), they are not enclosed within ovaries. They also have seeds specialized on sporophylls, which often form cones. They are one of the largest subdivisions of the plant kingdom.
There are 4 plant phyla that are gymnosperms; Phylum Cycadophyta (it is the oldest phylum), Phylum Ginkgophyta (only Ginkgo biloba remains), Phylum Gnetophyta (it has a high variation but genetic similarity), and Phylum Coniferophyta (pine redwood, spruce, larch, etc.).
Conifers can have complex life cycles, taking up to a year or more for reproduction from pollination to fertilization.
Angiosperms are seed-bearing vascular plants that produce flowers and fruits, and are enclosed within ovaries. Out of all the plant species 90% of them are angiosperms. They have up to 4 types of modified leaves (sporophylls); sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels.
In the formation of the fruit the egg is fertilized after pollination takes place, the ovule develops into a seed, and then the ovary wall thickens, and forms many forms of mature fruits. The structure of the flower often determines the type of the fruit. Forming fruits in these plants is very hard work, but to the plant it is worth it. The only purpose of forming a fruit is to help the seeds become successful plants. Besides, what a great blessing for us and animals.
Angiosperms can also be either monocots or dicots. Monocots have only one cotyledon, and dicots have two. They each have different characteristics, that you would be able to detect them at simple sight. Angiosperms have a rich diversity and many strategies for survival and propagation.
In conclusion, gymnosperms and angiosperms are very different from each other, but both have a special and fundamental job for survival. They also help us in many ways, and we must work hard to protect them.